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== Affiliations and support ==
::::Silva FSG(1), Komlodi T(2), Garcia-Souza LF(2,3), Bento G(1), Grilo (1), Doerrier (2), Oliveira PJ(1), Gnaiger E(2,3)
::::#CNC - Center Neuroscience Cell Biology, Univ Coimbra, UC Biotech Building, Biocant Park, Cantanhede, Portugal
::::#Oroboros Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria
::::#Department Visceral, Thoracic Surgery, Medical Univ Innsbruck, Austria. - email@example.com
::::The mtFOIE GRAS project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon-2020 Research and Innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No.734719. Filomena Silva is recipient of a Post-Doctoral Fellowship from the Foundation for Science and Technology, SFRH/ BPD/122648/2016. Filomena Silva was participated in short-term scientific mission supported by MitoEAGLE (COST Action CA15203).
== Figures ==
[[File:SilvaFilomena_Figure1.jpg|left|400 px]] Figure 1: Effect of etomoxir on different mitochondrial pathway control states on permeabilized Huh7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Effect of etomoxir was tested on the following mitochondrial pathways using high-resolution respirometry: 1) fatty acid oxidation (F-pathway) with 2 mM malate to support anaplerotic pathways, F(N); 2) NADH- (N) linked pathway in the presence of pyruvate, glutamate and 2 mM malate; 3) FN-pathway represents F-pathway in presence of pyruvate, glutamate and malate. Black dots represent the flux control ratios (FCR) of the control (untreated cells). Green dots show the FCR after 40 µM etomoxir treatment, while the red triangles demonstrate FCR in the presence of 200 µM etomoxir. (A) FCR in OXPHOS-state. (B) FCR in ET-state. The results are expressed as median and interquartile range of 4 independent experiments.
[[File:SilvaFilomena_Figure2.jpg|left|400 px]] Figure 2: Effect of etomoxir on complex I activity on isolated liver mitochondria from mouse. Complex I activity at different concentration of etomoxir (2-200 µM) is expressed in % respect to the control group. The results are expressed as median and interquartile range of 4 independent experiments.
== References ==
::::#Clara R, Langhans W, Mansouri A (2016) Oleic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 release from enteroendocrine cells by modulating cell respiration and glycolysis. Metabolism 65:8-17.
::::#Kang HM, Ahn SH, Choi P, Ko YA, Han SH, Chinga F, Park AS, Tao J, Sharma K, Pullman J, Bottinger EP, Goldberg IJ, Susztak K (2015) Defective fatty acid oxidation in renal tubular epithelial cells has a key role in kidney fibrosis development. Nat Med 21:37-46.
::::#Divakaruni AS, Hsieh WY, Minarrieta L, Duong TN, Kim KKO, Desousa BR, Andreyev AY, Bowman CE, Caradonna K, Dranka BP, Ferrick DA, Liesa M, Stiles L, Rogers GW, Braas D, Ciaraldi TP, Wolfgang MJ, Sparwasser T, Berod L, Bensinger SJ, Murphy AN (2018) Etomoxir inhibits macrophage polarization by disrupting CoA homeostasis. Cell Metab 28:490-503.
::::#Yao CH, Liu GY, Wang R, Moon SH, Gross RW, Patti GJ (2018) Identifying off-target effects of etomoxir reveals that carnitine palmitoyltransferase I is essential for cancer cell proliferation independent of β-oxidation. PLoS Biol 16:e2003782.
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