The sign of the stoichiometric number νX is determined by the nonspatial direction of the transformation (positive for products, negative for substrates), and the magnitude of νX is determined by the stoichiometric form. For instance, νA=-1 in the reaction 0 = -1 A + 2 B (-1 glucose converted to +2 lactate), but νA=-1/6 in the reaction 0 = -1/6 A - 1 B + 1 C (-1/6 glucose and -1 O2 converted to +1 H2CO3).
Reference: Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways
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